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Schmidt, “Ein Mani-Fund in Ägypten,” , Darmstadt, 1977. Zieme, “Die türkischen Fragmente des ‘Sermons von der Seele’,” in Sundermann, 1997, pp. (Rudolf Sellheim and Mohsen Zakeri, François de Blois, Werner Sundermann) Originally Published: December 15, 1999 Last Updated: January 24, 2012 This article is available in print. Human nature by default has been programmed to be socially active to a certain extent.Occasionally a list is dedicated to publications on a particular theme, as for example the literature on Koranic exegesis (ibid., pp. The last four discourses focus on the Arabic translations from Greek, Persian, Syriac and other languages, together with books composed in Arabic on the model of these translations. 353; this has survived, see mentions as a source many times, may have composed a list of authors using preliminary work done by Ebn al-Kalbī and Madāʾenī (see Lippert, p. Ebn al-Nadīm had probably examined personally many of the books which he records, though at times he also furnishes the names of his trustworthy informants. Nawbaḵt and Abū Maʿšār Balḵī (qq.v.), a for the most part legendary account of the scientific knowledge of the ancient Persians and of how some primeval Persian writings on occult matters had recently been unearthed in Isfahan (pp. This is followed by a somewhat more factual account of Persian translations of Greek books made during the Sasanian period and of how some of the books on logic and medicine which had formerly been translated into Persian were later rendered from Persian into Arabic by Ebn al-Moqaffaʿ “and others” (pp. Some books translated from Persian, or from “Indian” via Persian, are mentioned at the end of the chapter on medicine (p. The chapter devoted to what the author rather dismissively calls “bed-time stories” ( Ebn al-Nadīm says that it is debated whether they were composed by the Indians or the Persians; of the latter he knew two versions, a long one and a short one (p. There follows a list of ten books of “Persian bed-time stories,” including ? The next section gives titles of books dealing with lives of Persian kings, including a book about Rostam and Esfandīār (q.v.), translated by Jabala b. Generally one can say that Ebn al-Nadīm is most reliable and exhaustive in his account of the Manichean teachings. This is a peculiarity shared with original Manichean sources (cf. These sections are detailed enough to be considered a veritable history of literature. Later bio-bibliographical authors such as Yāqūt, Ebn al-Qefṭī, Ebn Abī Oṣaybeʿa, Ebn Ḵallekān, Kotobī, and Ḥājjī Ḵalīfa are all heavily dependent on the (1) G. Sālem; one about Bahrām Čōbīn (q.v.), from the same translator; a book about Šahrīzād (read: Šahrbarāz? Certain details of the cosmogony are also not to be found in such detail in any other textual source, e.g., how the primal man arms himself with the elements for the fight against darkness (tr. 778-79) or how he obliges them as his sons to serve the world of light against the darkness (tr. A remarkable gap is the almost complete lack of the “Third Ambassador,” who is merely mentioned with the name ) are active in his place (tr. The chapter on non-Muslim sects, after detailed accounts of the Ḥarrānians and Manichaeans, discusses various religious movements with their roots in the Iranian past, among them Ḵorramīya and Mazdakites (pp. Ebn al-Nadīm writes that he had known around 300 Manicheans in Bagdad at the time of the Buyid Moʿezz-al-Dawla (334-56/945-67), but at the time of writing (ca. This reduction in the number of Manicheans in the capital of Islam almost to the point of disappearance enabled his account of them to become a work of scientific-historical dimensions. On the other hand, one can prove that he followed at least one Arabic source extensively. Abū ʿĪsā’s text itself contained citations from the “the Manicheans have said.” Here the author, or his source, was using perhaps non-canonical writings (eg. Tubach’s still unpublished article “Ostiranische Traditionen in der arabischen Überlieferung bei Ibn an-Nadīm.” . The first appears only here in the Manichean tradition. The presentation of Mani’s life contains noticably more variants than that of his teachings. There are also three descriptions of Mani’s death (tr. Instead its parts were constantly re-arranged, enlarged and corrupted by the following generations. On the contrary, if the assertion of the that Mani had spread his teachings for “about” forty years as far as China (tr. 776) before he met King Šābuhr I rested on a secure tradition, then this must have happened when he was 24 plus 40, i.e., 64 years old. 115-21) has not yet been found complete in any work of the Manichean or non-Manichean tradition (cf. That material of antiquity and historical value is to be found among the hagiographically stylised information of the , pp. 377/987-88) there were “hardly more than five” there (tr. It was easier for the author to report objectively, unpolemically, and to the best of his knowledge on a foreign, often persecuted, religion which had almost disappeared. one of the canonical texts of the Manicheans (the seventh in this list). Müller’s realization that an exact correspondence between the apocalyptic damnation of the sinners in the have directly referred to these texts as sources for his presentation? It is unlikely that he used additional Modern and Middle Persian and Aramaic texts. hagiographic homilies) or was relying on oral information. It is also asserted here that the Sogdian Manicheans were called “teacher, master” (Asmussen, p. The author seems to have used two sometimes contrary principles in the structuring of his description of Mani and his teachings: (1) the desire to present the material logically and coherently, (2) the preservation of traditional pieces. The description of Mani’s end and the final evaluation of his personality in the passage on the reprimands of the , pp. But, in fact, the two are to be separated (thus correctly tr. 794) and Mani’s end is to be connected rather with the presentation of Manichean eschatology. Ebn al-Nadīm gives three variants for the name of Mani’s mother (tr. It is possibly due to the sources available to Ebn al-Nadīm that the information on the larger, second part of Mani’s life becomes steadily scanter. 320/932 and died there on Wednesday, 20 Šaʿbān 380/12 November 990. Having acquired an unusually extensive education, he cultivated ties with the luminaries of Baghdad learned society, counting among his teachers and informants such savants as the poet ʿAlī b.

The contains miscellaneous pieces of rare information. The adaptations to Islam distance the picture given in the from Mani’s own myth of his teachings, but this distance becomes larger in view of the fact that the basic Gnostic idea of cosmic redemption by light as the Self-redemption of the divinity, often mentioned in Manicheism, is not spoken of at all. 16-18), can be confirmed by Sogdian-Manichean letters from Turfan (cf. As per the statistics revealed on Statista, approximately 2 billion users used social networking sites and apps in 2015.And, with the increased use of mobile devices, this number is likely to cross the 2.6 billion mark by 2018.And, in this age of digitisation, people have found ways to be socially active on the internet, which is possible with the advent of the numerous social networking platforms and apps.Now, even relationships begin, grow and end on social media.

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