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At any rate in a Bull of Honorius III, Viterbo, 22 Sept., 1220 ( Bull. xviii of the second rule, that much authority is given to the ministers through the general chapter, which hitherto had been frequented by all the brothers, but now is reserved to the ministers. It has been preserved in many manuscripts and has been often printed, but there are some noteworthy discrepancies of text in chaps. The following remarks may be added to characterize it. 1216) show clearly that the second rule is only an enlarged version of the primitive one. iv and xviii appears an organization, which at the time the first rule was written (1209) could not have existed, since St. The Life of Brother Giles (Analecta Francisc., iii, 74 sq., and the introduction of Robinson's "The Golden Sayings of the Blessed Brother Giles," Philadelphia, 1907) may be read as an illustration of this chapter. Elias, to whom this rule was entrusted, after a few days declared that he had lost it, hence St. Spiritual sources give other rather dramatic circumstances, under which the new rule was communicated to the provincials, headed by Brother Elias. Francis say nothing on the point, it may be supposed that those records serve only to justify the Spirituals in their opposition to the rest of the order. The rule of 1223 is the Franciscan Rule properly so called, the rule which the Friars Minor still observe. x in the third rule were much in favour of the friars, who recurred to their ministers for the pure observance of the rule, but Honorius III, seeing the inconvenience of such a large concession, modified those passages, before approving the rule.Franc., I, 6), addressed "to the Priors or Custodes of the Friars Minor," one year of novitiate is introduced, in conformity with other orders, after which no one may leave the order (c. The second rule was probably published at the General Chapter of Portiuncula, 1221, where for the last time all the friars convened. The rule of 1221 consists of twenty-three chapters, some of which are composed almost entirely of scriptural texts; in others many admonitions are found and towards the end even prayers. It may appear strange that neither Thomas of Celano nor St. iv) relates that when the order had greatly increased, St. The rule composed in 1223 was solemnly confirmed by the Bull "Solet annuere" of Honorius III, 29 Nov., 1223 ( Bull. It is named by Franciscan authors "Regula bullata" or "Regula secunda." The question has been put whether St. Francis wrote to a certain minister, perhaps to Elias, he proposes that at the next chapter of Whitsuntide a chapter of the rule should be written to the effect that if any brother has sinned venially and humbly owns it, they (the ministers or the priests ) shall "have absolutely no power of enjoining other penance save only this: go and sin no more." Now in c. Thirdly, Gregory IX, in the Bull "Quo elongati" (1230), says that he knew the intention of St. 372 sq.) has with skill attacked all these arguments.xii) in the middle of the thirteenth century, Ubertino of Casale (Arbor Vitae, Bk. Böhmer (Analekten zur Geschichte des Franciscus von Assisi, Tuebingen and Leipzig, 1904, 88-89).This first rule marks the stage of the order governed by St.Francis gives particulars concerning reception, profession, and vestments of the brothers.They are forbidden to wear shoes, if not compelled through necessity (c. Chapter the third prescribes for the clerics "the Divine Office according to the order of the holy Roman Church, with the exception of the Psalter ; wherefore (or, as soon as) they may have breviaries." The laybrothers have to say Paternosters, disposed according to the canonical hours.And the blessed Francis seeing that brother Caesarius [of Spires ] was learned in holy letters, he charged him to embellish with texts of the Gospel the Rule which he himself had written with simple words." The narrative of Jordanus, precious though it be, is incomplete. 36; Döllinger, "Sektengeschichte," II, 440 sq.; and "Expositio in Regulam"), Bartholomew of Pisa [Liber Conformitatum fruct., XII, pars II, ed. Francis that he might introduce some organization into the order according to the Rules of St. The chapter at which this occurred was most, likely the one of 1220.
They are forbidden to ride on horseback, unless compelled by manifest necessity or infirmity (c. The next chapter "strictly enjoins on all the brothers that in no wise they receive coins or money, either themselves or through an interposed person." However, the ministers and custodes have to take the greatest care of their subjects through spiritual friends, according to places and times and other circumstances, saving always that, as has been said, they shall not "receive coins or money" (c. To banish idleness and to provide for their support, St. It contains the prescriptions of the most ideal poverty: "The brothers shall appropriate nothing to themselves, neither a house nor place nor anything. The following chapter treats of penance to be inflicted on brothers who have sinned.Francis successively developed his rule, adapting it to the circumstances; hence if all the particulars of the former rules are not found in the last one that is no reason to say St. Against the theory of the Spirituals it is more reasonable to say that St. (See the words of his Testament cited above.) Of course a special guidance of xxyyyk.htm"(2) Contents of the Rule The rule is contained in the Bull "Solet annuere," and begins with these characteristic words: "The rule and life of the Minor Brothers is this, namely, to observe the holy Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ by living in obedience, without property and in chastity." St.Francis followed an inner light of grace when taking the texts of the Gospel as his rule of life in the years 1208-1209. Francis promises obedience to Pope Honorius and his successors, the other brothers are to obey Brother Francis and his successors (c. Having thus laid the solid foundation of unity upon the Church, St.But this is not certain; it is not even proved that St. Still, indirectly, Angelo Clareno is right, inasmuch as the prohibition of founding new orders, decreed at this council, was not applied to St. Some letters of Honorius III, given 1219 (Bullarium Franciscanum, I, 2), may also be considered as a general approbation of the life and rule of the friars. II, v., a) and Angelo Clareno (Expositio in Regulam, passim ) in the beginning of the fourteenth century, quote constantly as the first rule, confirmed by Innocent III, the one written in 1221.The text of the primitive rule seems to have perished very early, since Hugo of Digne (Expositio in Regulam, Prologus and c. However, endeavours of reconstruction have been made by Karl Mueller (Die Anfaenge des Minoritenordens und der Bussbruderschaften, Freiburg im Br., 1885, 185-188), and by H.
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We may speak of three successive rules or of three successive versions of the same rule; that makes little difference, since the spirit in the three cases is the same. Francis presented to Innocent III for approval in the year 1209; its real text is not known. iii), we are forced to conclude that this primitive rule was little more than some passages of the Gospel heard in 1208 in the chapel of Portiuncula.